comment from post 5
Statistics is needed at every stage of the research beginning from planning to the end, in order to gain scientifically importance and to obtain reliable results. The use of the inappropriate statistical method, technique and the analysis cause time and cost lost and most importantly thinking in the way of scientific ethics, it gives harm to science and humanity. Even if the study is carefully planned to conduct as a result of applications with errors, the misleading results might be obtained. That leads other mistake who takes as a reference to those studies (Ercan, 2007).
There are different types of graphics to demonstrate the distribution and the tendency of the variable in detail. Nevertheless most of the researchers do not know which graphic type is suitable for which type of data and objective, so they plot the graphs at random, resulting in wrong impression of the true nature of the data. Graphic representations can be misleading, and large differences between groups that come with large variability might not be significant, no matter how they look (Ercan, 2007).
A review subjected to the use of statistics in science and in medical journals to indicate room for improvement stated that at least half of the published scientific methods have statistical errors. Some of the errors mentioned include failing to document the statistical methods used or using an improper method to test statistical hypothesis, every research, in every planning, and in everything that is scientifically important. An example of this would be the following study analyzes “articles in Infection and Immunity for appropriateness of statistical analysis and reporting. I reviewed all 141 articles from two issues, January 2002 (volume 70, no. 1) and July 2002 (volume 70, no. 7); listed the statistical analyses used; and identified errors in analysis and reporting. Errors were defined with respect to the current instructions to authors (2), accepted statistical practice), and professional judgment” (Olsen, C. H. 2003).
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